Those Magnificent Men: France and Aviation History

Those Magnificent Men: France and Aviation History

In 1909, businessman Louis Blériot astonished the world by flying across the Channel

France soared into aviation history on July 25, 1909, when Louis Blériot piloted the first aeroplane across the English Channel, accomplishing what no one had done before. In just over half an hour, Blériot crossed la Manche, the 38km-wide body of water that had once kept Napoleon at bay. Following the success of the Wright Brothers’ first powered flight, Blériot’s feat was the most significant event in aviation history.

Born in 1872, the dapper and moustachioed Blériot was a shrewd businessman. A graduate from the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, the clever young engineer founded the Établissements Louis Blériot, which developed the first practical headlamp for the burgeoning auto industry.


Blériot kept his early enthusiasm for flying machines to himself, but he became a fanatic aviator as his business prospered. Blériot fine-tuned and perfected ten precarious-looking prototypes. His family fortune dwindled while his dreams of flying grew: he sold the patent to his headlamp to raise funds, along with his summer home and his car. “Like a gambler,” he said, “I had to recover my losses. I had to fly.” And by the summer of 1909, he was one of the few men in the world who could. Blériot’s 11th model could stay aloft for 30 minutes. What he needed now was a spectacular event to attract interest and investors.

The Blériot XI at the Musé e des arts et mé tiers in Paris © Musée des arts et métiers, Cnam

The Blériot XI at the Musé e des arts et métiers in Paris © Musée des arts et métiers, Cnam


The Daily Mail came through for him, offering a £1,000 prize to the first person who could successfully cross the English Channel in a flying machine. Just six days before Blériot’s attempt, rival Hubert Latham accepted the dare. Latham ditched his monoplane, the Antoinette, in the sea, making Latham not only the first pilot to attempt to cross the Channel but the first to land in a body of water. Latham vowed to try for the prize again and Blériot was spurred into action.

Little more than a motorised kite, the construction of Blériot’s monoplane was simple and efficient, its fuselage just sturdy enough to bear the weight of its component parts – the 25-horsepower engine, its finely-tuned propeller, and its pilot. Latham, with his replacement plane, had set up camp on the cliffs just minutes from Blériot at Les Baraques.

Louis Blériot became the first man to fly across the Channel

Louis Blériot became the first man to fly across the Channel © MICHÈLE FAVAREILLE, WIKIMEDIA


With Blériot and Latham both preparing for flight, flocks of reporters descended, eagerly recording the contest between these intrepid men in their flying machines. Who would dare fly first? Blériot, the early bird, left at dawn. Latham missed his chance.

Dealing with high winds and fog, with no compass or instruments, Blériot drifted off course. His heart soared when he saw a French reporter madly waving the Tricolore atop the white cliffs of Dover. Half a kilometre as the crow flies from Dover Castle, Blériot crash landed. He had succeeded in crossing the Channel in just 36 minutes, stretching aviation technology to its limits and winning the world records for speed, altitude, distance, and duration.

The spot where he landed is now marked with a memorial. His company, Blériot Aéronautique, designed and produced aircraft up until 1937. The famed Blériot XI is now suspended under the rafters of the church next to the Musée des arts et métiers in Paris, where to this day it continues to set imaginations soaring.

From France Today Magazine

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After experiencing an epiphany at the Musée d'Orsay, Hazel Smith is currently a mature student of art history at the University of Toronto. Blogger and amateur historian, she has also written for the online travel guide and for Fascinated with the lives of the Impressionists, Hazel has made pilgrimages to the houses and haunts of the artists while in France. She is continually searching for the perfect art history mystery to solve. She maintains the blogs Smartypants Goes to France and The Clever Pup (

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  •  Federaltax
    2023-05-01 04:59:13
    I thoroughly enjoyed reading this fascinating article on France's rich aviation history. From the Wright brothers to Louis Blériot, the French have played a pivotal role in the development of aviation technology. I was particularly interested to learn about the development of the jet engine and the Concorde supersonic plane - both major contributions to the aviation industry. Thanks for sharing this informative and engaging piece!


  •  Tom Walker
    2023-02-08 03:38:02
    Tom Walker
    Charles Nungesser and Francois Coli were first to fly across the the Atlantic 9th May 1927 beating Charles Lindbergh by 12 days, unfortunately they crash-landed in Washington County Maine and were murdered by local woodsmen as described in my book ¨The Whitebird Story a conspiracy of silence¨. on Amazon .com.


  • Hazel Smith
    2021-09-11 14:47:15
    Hazel Smith
    Hi. I was intrigued by seeing the Bleriot memorial in Dover as a child. Photos of Santos-Dumont's exploits are amazing! Santos-Dumont's 'heavier than air' flight in 1906 was just 220m. Bleriot's achievements just three years later broke all records. Although Santos-Dumont is known for the first controlled flight in Europe , the Wrights were the first to accomplish controlled flight in 03 and in a one page article, I must stay concise.


  • Hazel Smith
    2021-09-11 14:15:58
    Hazel Smith
    Yes. There was a huge celebration for him at Dover harbour. Bleriot became a celebrity. He went on to design mono-planes, bi-planes and started a flying school. He remained active in the aeronautical business until he died in 1936 of a heart attack.


  • J Jr
    2021-09-06 15:26:05
    J Jr
    What about Alberto Santos Dumont? The real first in flight


  • Peter Gomez
    2021-09-06 06:24:23
    Peter Gomez
    Enjoyed this article. Perfect art history mystery? What is one example?


    • Hazel Smith
      2021-09-11 14:18:32
      Hazel Smith
      Hi Peter, something akin to who cut off Van Gogh's ear, but Bernadette Murphy has that covered!


  • Albinio Gonzalez
    2021-09-05 16:14:08
    Albinio Gonzalez
    Did he live after crash